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澳洲邦德論文代寫:矛盾的見解

Keywords:澳洲,邦德,論文,代寫,矛盾,的,見解,為了,解釋,

為了解釋這些矛盾的見解如何消化不良的搖頭丸可以影響人類的大腦,動物實驗已經完成。Green等人(2003)認為搖頭丸降低腦血清素在動物水平,以及損害的分支通過5-羥色胺神經元產生接觸和連接到其他細胞。血清素的作用是調節情緒、情緒、睡眠和食欲。因此血清素是控制許多行為和生理功能的關鍵機制。5-羥色胺能神經傳遞的下降已經隱含在抑郁癥的病因中發揮關鍵作用。突觸的血清素的濃度是直接控制其再攝取進入突觸前終端,因此,藥物阻斷血清素運輸已被成功地用于治療抑郁癥。因此,狂喜的興奮作用可以被假定為緩解悲傷和焦慮的–然而系統,服用這種藥物的整體作用的5-羥色胺能系統有負面后果。因此,搖頭丸不能被歸類為一種安全的藥物,在追求緩解抑郁癥狀。然而,這些結果已經發生在動物實驗。因此,將這些效應轉移到動物大腦中來推斷人類大腦的變化是相同的。為了對抗這些差異,麥卡恩等人(1994)研究了搖頭丸對人類大腦的長期損害。研究人員通過正電子發射斷層掃描發現了一種與血清素受體結合的放射性化學物質,即搖頭丸使用者對神經遞質的受體較少。他們的結論是,“搖頭丸是大腦5-羥色胺神經元的毒性。”

澳洲邦德論文代寫:矛盾的見解

To explain these conflicting views of how the indigestion of Ecstasy can affect the human brain, experiments on animals have been performed. Green et al (2003) argue that MDMA decreases brain levels of serotonin in animals, and damages the branches through which serotonin-producing neurons reach out and connect to other cells. The role serotonin is known to adjust mood, emotion, sleep and appetite. Therefore serotonin is a key mechanism in the control of numerous behavioural and physiological functions. Decreased serotoninergic neurotransmission has been implied to play a key role in the cause of depression. The concentration of synaptic serotonin is controlled directly by its reuptake into the pre-synaptic terminal and, thus, drugs blocking serotonin transport have been successfully used for the treatment of depression. Therefore, the euphoria effects of Ecstasy can be assumed to relieve systems of sadness and anxiety – however, the overall effects of taking the drug have negative consequences for the serotoninergic system. Therefore, Ecstasy can not be classified as a safe drug to take in the pursuit of relieving depressive symptoms. However, these results have been occurred through experiments on animals. It is therefore difficult to transfer these effects in the animal brain to infer that changes in the human brains will be the same. To combat these discrepancies McCann et al (1994) have investigated the long term damage that taking Ecstasy can have on the human brain. Using a radioactive chemical that binds to serotonin receptors, the researchers have shown from positron emission tomography brain scans that Ecstasy users have fewer receptors for the neurotransmitter. They conclude that ‘MDMA is toxic to brain serotonin neurons.’

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