Malaysia and China are both Asian countries. To some extent, both share a similar cultural background that emphasizes on mathematics education and examination. However, in international assessments, for example, The Third International Mathematics and Science Study-Repeat (1997-2001), Chinese students (from Hong Kong [ranked 3rd] and Taiwan [ranked 4th]) performed much better than Malaysian students [ranked 16th]. What are the possible factors? Are Chinese students more prepared for international assessment? Or are Chinese students more equipped with basic mathematical knowledge and skills? Are Chinese parents and society look more highly upon examination than their Malaysian counterparts? We hope that a comparative study on the two countries assessment and examination systems might provide us with some insight as well as act as a mirror to reflect on our own systems.In brief, this paper aims to discuss and compare the various levels of public examination system and the school assessment conducted in both countries. In addition, this paper also explores the possible factors of higher mathematics performance of Chinese students as compared to Malaysian students, such as a) cultural and political factor; b) emphasis of the "Two Basics" principle of mathematics education in China; c) the quality of mathematics teachers; d) higher level of teaching content; and e) societal and parental expectation.