許多因素影響著私立學校和公立學校的作用。主要的區別因素之一是學校的資金來源。公立學校主要依靠地方、州和聯邦政府的資金。私立學校大多是靠學費來資助的，有時也會有其他非公共來源的資助，比如捐贈基金、宗教組織、助學金和慈善捐款。在其他一些州，私立學校也可以接受某些服務的公共資金(Choy, 1998)。換句話說，公立學校是由政府資助的;對所有學生都是免費的，而私立學校對每個學生都收取學費，而且不是政府資助的。由于私立學校不接受政府的資助，必須自己籌集資金，私立學校的管理人員在他們認為合適的情況下可以有更多的靈活性來管理學校。然而，公立學校必須遵守由選出的學校董事會成員宣布的嚴格規則。學生的學業成績在很大程度上取決于教師的性質和經驗。重要的是要知道私立學校和公立學校的教師工資是不同的。學校雇用和留住優秀教師的能力是非常重要的，并且從根本上與相關教師的工資有關。根據國家教育統計中心(National Center for Education Statistics)的數據，2011-12年間，公立學校和私立學校全職教師之間的差距很大。僅在公立學校，教師的平均工資就約為53,070美元。擁有公立學校博士學位的學生，平均工資約為60230美元。在私立學校，教師的平均工資大約是40200美元。擁有博士學位的學生，平均年薪為52,590美元。工資與平均工資的差異接近34,893美元。教師的工資因經驗水平而異，但根據這些統計數據，即使擁有博士學位，公立學校的工資也比私立學校高。盡管私立學校教師的工資低于公立學校教師，但據報道，私立學校教師更有可能對自己的工作條件感到滿意。
Many factors affect the role of private and public schools. One of the main differentiating factors is how schools are funded. Public schools rely mainly on local, state, and federal government funds. Private schools are mostly assisted by tuition payments and sometimes by funds from other non-public sources like, endowments, religious organizations, grants, and charitable donations. In some other states, private schools can also receive public funds for certain services (Choy, 1998). In other words, public schools are governmentally funded therefore; being free to all students while private schools charge tuition to every student and are not governmentally funded. Since, Private schools do not receive government funding and must raise their own funds the private school officials get more flexibility into running schools as they see fit. Whereas, public schools must follow strict rules announced by elected school board members.Students’ academic achievement depends greatly on the nature and experience of teachers. Its crucial to know that private and public schooling varies in teacher pay. The ability of schools to hire and retain excellent instructors is of great character and is fundamentally linked to relative teacher pay. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011-12 the gap between full time teachers in public and private schools differed greatly. In public schools alone, the mean salary for a teacher was about $53,070 dollars. With a doctorate degree in public schools, the mean salary was about $60,230 dollars. In private schools, the mean salary for teachers was about $40,200 dollars. With a doctorate degree, the average was $52,590 dollars. The variance in pay from the mean salary is nearly $34,893 dollars. Teachers pay varies depending on the level of experience but based on these statistics even with a doctorate degree public schools pay more than private schools. Although, private school teachers get paid less than public school teachers it has been reported that private school teachers are more likely to be satisfied with their working conditions.