What is it that makes males and females so different? What is it that makes males want to use profuse profanity and show their machismo at every opportunity (Cameron, 1997)? Why do women seem to sit so closely to others, and while there, ask several questions (Carli, 1990)? These are age old questions that are slowly being uncovered. Fortunately, after conducting extensive empirical research over time, investigators are able to provide insight into the idiosyncrasies of males and females. Although answers have not been found for all the questions around male-female conversational styles, researchers have strived to make correlations and conclusions that can be reasonably applied to gender related conversation. In order to better understand the complexity of this topic, it is vital to review current research in the arena of males, females and conversation.In the book We Have to Talk, by Doctors Samuel Shem and Janet Surrey (1998), the authors build the foundation that assists one in understanding why males and females have such distinct conversational styles. According to Shem and Surrey, these differences do not surface later in life, but rather are engrained in children at a very young age. As early as two to three years of age, males are no longer nurtured as they were when they were infants. As they grow, they observe relational interactions being created and sustained by females; however, males are discouraged from engaging with others in this same way. On the contrary, females are taught to be selfless and provide nurture and care to others. Once they reach adolescence, however, they toggle between their upbringing as a, selfless, considerate individual and their current need to become independent and fulfill their own needs. Thus, as adults, people are ill-prepared to interact in conversation without feeling inadequate or awkward. It is during this time that they test different styles to understand what works well in conversation and what does not. Not only is the difficulty in relating to the gender, but further, understanding where the disconnect lies.