<标题> Chapter 2 which focussed on the historical and political context of Early Childhood Development in South Africa revealed that Grade R teachers came from different backgrounds with different training experiences. This impacted on their implementation of numeracy. Chapter 3 has described in depth the curriculum policy development and implementation teachers had to implement since 1998. Again, teachers' practice as then, had to make major paradigm shifts in implementing numeracy in their classrooms. With the proposed introduction of, yet another curriculum change, the CAPS (South Africa. Dobe, 2010f) in 2011, Foundation Phase teachers, including Grade R teachers and practitioners, need to make another mind shift regarding the implementation of numeracy in their classrooms. However, the Report of the Task Team for the Review of the Implementation of the National Curriculum Statement (South Africa. DoE, 2009) warns that if teachers do not have a clear understanding of curriculum policy and how curriculum implementation should take place, it cannot then be expected of teachers to implement such a curriculum. It must, however, be recognized that the abundance of change has left many teachers bewildered.Our recent curriculum history has been characterized by radical change within a relatively short period. The result has been a high level of confusion amongst teachers around what they are expected to do. These past changes have left tracks in teachers' current understandings and practice, particular tracks of Curriculum 2005 (South Africa. DoE, 2009, p. 24).Chapter 4 attempts to clarify how four learning theories, and especially constructivism, relate to the implementation of numeracy in Grade R. The importance of learning through play, which includes exploration, experimenting, discovery, making choices and problem-solving was highlighted by Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner. However, the transcriptions of the audio-video tapes in Chapter 6, reveal that many teachers are not using these valuable teaching strategies. This finding is echoed by the Baseline Study Report (South Africa. ECDoE, (2008a) which states as follow.The majority of classrooms did not demonstrate learning occurring through active exploration of the environment. Children were either playing by themselves (without structured play materials), sitting waiting quietly, or being 'taught' Grade 1 work in the traditional way (chanting's she si so so' over and over again) (p. 89).