This review aims to contemplate some of the fundamental issues that need to be addressed in order for schools to promote PI effectively. It starts by placing PI within a political and historical setting. It then discusses the difficulty in defining PI and how differing perceptions might actually pose as a barrier to promoting it effectively in schools. The review goes on to explore two theories/models of PI (Epstein, Hoover-Dempsey& Sandler) which are thought to merit particular consideration in terms of schools developing a framework conducive to the effective promotion of PI. Communication is also discussed in order to highlight some of the basic issues in schools surrounding this area and some of the strategies that might enhance it.The review concludes that some of the language associated with PI can be ambiguous and therefore problematic due to the differing perceptions of meaning. It is important for schools, parents and pupils to all agree on a definition of terms and this is likely to be unique to every school. It is also suggested that in order for schools to promote participation effectively, it is best to have a framework in place which takes account of sociological and psychological factors regarding the agencies involved. The theories/models of Epstein and Hoover-Dempsey provide useful tools for schools in developing an individualised framework designed to accommodate the various dimensions associated with PI, including those advocated by the Scottish Government. However, care has to be taken so that frameworks do not become too pre-occupied with the goals of the school at the expense of the needs of pupils and parents.